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Yale University

Yale University is a private Ivy League research university located in New Haven, Connecticut.
Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. Originally chartered as the "Collegiate School", the institution traces its roots to 17th-century clergymen who sought to establish a college to train clergy and political leaders for the colony. In 1718, the College was renamed "Yale College" to honor a gift from Elihu Yale, a governor of the British East India Company. In 1861, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences became the first U.S. institution to award the Ph.D.5 Yale became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. Yale College was transformed, beginning in the 1930s, through the establishment of residential colleges: 12 now exist and two more are planned.
Yale employs over 1,100 faculty to teach and advise about 5,300 undergraduate and 6,100 graduate and professional students. Almost all tenured professors teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually.67 The university's assets include an endowment valued at $20.80 billion as of 2013,1 the second-largest of any academic institution in the world. Yale's system of more than two dozen libraries holds 12.5 million volumes.8 Fifty-one Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the University as students, faculty, or staff. Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, and many foreign heads of state.
Yale students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I Ivy League. The oldest intercollegiate athletic event in the United States is the Yale-Harvard regatta.
Several explanations have been offered for Yale¡¯s representation in national elections since the end of the Vietnam War. Various sources note the spirit of campus activism that has existed at Yale since the 1960s, and the intellectual influence of Reverend William Sloane Coffin on many of the future candidates.43 Yale President Richard Levin attributes the run to Yale¡¯s focus on creating "a laboratory for future leaders," an institutional priority that began during the tenure of Yale Presidents Alfred Whitney Griswold and Kingman Brewster.43 Richard H. Brodhead, former dean of Yale College and now president of Duke University, stated: "We do give very significant attention to orientation to the community in our admissions, and there is a very strong tradition of volunteerism at Yale."42 Yale historian Gaddis Smith notes "an ethos of organized activity" at Yale during the 20th century that led John Kerry to lead the Yale Political Union's Liberal Party, George Pataki the Conservative Party, and Joseph Lieberman to manage the Yale Daily News.44 Camille Paglia points to a history of networking and elitism: "It has to do with a web of friendships and affiliations built up in school."45 CNN suggests that George W. Bush benefited from preferential admissions policies for the "son and grandson of alumni", and for a "member of a politically influential family."46 New York Times correspondent Elisabeth Bumiller and The Atlantic Monthly correspondent James Fallows credit the culture of community and cooperation that exists between students, faculty, and administration, which downplays self-interest and reinforces commitment to others.47
During the 1988 presidential election, George H. W. Bush (Yale '48) derided Michael Dukakis for having "foreign-policy views born in Harvard Yard's boutique". When challenged on the distinction between Dukakis's Harvard connection and his own Yale background, he said that, unlike Harvard, Yale's reputation was "so diffuse, there isn't a symbol, I don't think, in the Yale situation, any symbolism in it" and said Yale did not share Harvard's reputation for "liberalism and elitism".4849 In 2004 Howard Dean stated, "In some ways, I consider myself separate from the other three (Yale) candidates of 2004. Yale changed so much between the class of '68 and the class of '71. My class was the first class to have women in it; it was the first class to have a significant effort to recruit African Americans. It was an extraordinary time, and in that span of time is the change of an entire generation".50
In 2009, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair picked Yale as one location ¨C the others are Britain's Durham University and Universiti Teknologi Mara ¨C for the Tony Blair Faith Foundation's United States Faith and Globalization Initiative.51 As of 2009, former Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo is the director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization and teaches an undergraduate seminar, "Debating Globalization".52 As of 2009, former presidential candidate and DNC chair Howard Dean teaches a residential college seminar, "Understanding Politics and Politicians."53 Also in 2009, an alliance was formed among Yale, University College London, and both schools¡¯ affiliated hospital complexes to conduct research focused on the direct improvement of patient care¡ªa growing field known as translational medicine. President Richard Levin noted that Yale has hundreds of other partnerships across the world, but "no existing collaboration matches the scale of the new partnership with UCL".